Tuesday, July 17, 2007

Anthropological Evidence and the Fallmerayer Thesis


dedicated to greek nationalist Dienekes Pontikos (and others...)

Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer (1790 – 1861) was an Austrian scholar who proposed, in his Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea während des Mittelalters (Stuttgart, 1830–1836, 2 pts.) that the modern Greeks were not descended from the ancient ones. According to Fallmerayer, they are the descendants of medieval Slavs who inundated Greece during the Middle Ages, with a further adstratum of Albanians of late medieval and Ottoman times. According to Fallmerayer's thesis:

Das Geschlecht der Hellenen ist in Europa ausgerottet ... Denn auch nicht ein Tropfen edlen und ungemischten Hellenenblutes fließt in den Adern der christlichen Bevölkerung des heutigen Griechenlands.

The Hellenic nation has been annihilated in Europe ... Because not even a drop of pure and unmixed Hellenic blood flows in the veins of the Christian population of today's Greece.



where greeks lost antic beauty?..
link link

Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited only from the mother and is thus widely used to test the maternal composition of human populations. Mutations that accumulate on human mitochondria define unique clades of the mtDNA phylogeny, and these can be dated using a molecular clock. Thus, populations that are related matrilineally should possess the same types of mtDNA at similar frequencies.

HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks

HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks.

Arnaiz-Villena A, Dimitroski K, Pacho A, Moscoso J, Gómez-Casado E, Silvera-Redondo C, Varela P, Blagoevska M, Zdravkovska V, Martínez-Laso J.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, H. 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. aarnaiz@eucmax.sim.ucm.es

HLA alleles have been determined in individuals from the Republic of Macedonia by DNA typing and sequencing. HLA-A, -B, -DR, -DQ allele frequencies and extended haplotypes have been for the first time determined and the results compared to those of other Mediterraneans, particularly with their neighbouring Greeks. Genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence analysis have been performed. The following conclusions have been reached:
1) Macedonians belong to the "older" Mediterranean substratum, like Iberians (including Basques), North Africans, Italians, French, Cretans, Jews, Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians,
2) Macedonians are not related with geographically close Greeks, who do not belong to the "older" Mediterranenan substratum,
3) Greeks are found to have a substantial relatedness to sub-Saharan (Ethiopian) people, which separate them from other Mediterranean groups. Both Greeks and Ethiopians share quasi-specific DRB1 alleles, such as *0305, *0307, *0411, *0413, *0416, *0417, *0420, *1110, *1112, *1304 and *1310.
Genetic distances are closer between Greeks and Ethiopian/sub-Saharan groups than to any other Mediterranean group and finally Greeks cluster with Ethiopians/sub-Saharans in both neighbour joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. The time period when these relationships might have occurred was ancient but uncertain and might be related to the displacement of Egyptian-Ethiopian people living in pharaonic Egypt.



The correlation between languages and genes: the Usko-Mediterranean peoples

Arnaiz-Villena A, Martinez-Laso J, Alonso-Garciá J.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, H. 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense, 28041, Madrid, Spain. aarnaiz@eucmax.sim.ucm.es

The usko-Mediterraneans peoples are defined as ancient and present day populations that have lived in the Mediterranean/Middle-East/Caucasus area and have spoken a Basque related language. The present day existing populations show an HLA genetic relatedness which is more or less close according to geographical distance. The Greek sample is an outlying in all genetic analyses, because Greeks have a significant genetic input from sub-Saharan Ethiopians and Blacks. This probably occurred in Pharaonic times. Present day comparisons between genes and languages show a lack of correlation: Macedonian, Palestinians, Kurds, part of Berbers, Armenians, and Turks belong to the old Mediterranean substratum, but they do not speak a language included in the old Mediterranean Dene-Caucasian group. This is due to an "elite"-imposed culture and language. Other ethnic groups speak an "old Mediterranean language" or "usko-Mediterranean language" modified by Roman Latin (i.e., Spanish, Italians), or by other not fully explained processes (Jews). Therefore, the correlation between genes and languages may exist at a macrogeographical level, but not when more precise microgeographical studies are done, as shown in the present "usko-Mediterranean" peoples model.


HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their relationship with other Mediterraneans

Hajjej A, Hmida S, Kaabi H, Dridi A, Jridi A, El Gaa l ed A, Boukef K.

National Blood Transfusion Centre, Tunis, Tunisia.

South Tunisian HLA gene profile has studied for the first time. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele frequencies of Ghannouch have been compared with those of neighboring populations, other Mediterraneans and Sub-Saharans. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, Neighbor-Joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. Our HLA data show that both southern from Ghannouch and northern Tunisians are of a Berber substratum in spite of the successive incursions (particularly, the 7th-8th century A.D. Arab invasion) occurred in Tunisia. It is also the case of other North Africans and Iberians.
This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara



Greek Language

Classification of the European Language Families by Genetic Distance

Rosalind M. Harding, and Robert R. Sokal

PNAS 1988;85;9370-9372

This information is current as of October 2006.

E-mail Alerts

Rights & Permissions


This article has been cited by other articles:

Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top
right corner of the article or click here.

To reproduce this article in part (figures, tables) or in entirety, see:

To order reprints, see:


Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA
Vol. 85, pp. 9370-9372, December 1988
Population Biology

Classification of the European language families by genetic distance
(human variation/gene frequencies)

Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245

Contributed by Robert R. Sokal, August 24, 1988

Genetic distances among speakers of the European language families were computed by using gene- frequency data for human blood group antigens, enzymes, and proteins of26 genetic systems.
Each system was represented by a different subset of 3369 localities across Europe. By subject- ing the matrix ofdistances to numerical taxonomic procedures, we obtained a grouping of the language families of Europe by their genetic distances as contrasted with their linguistic relationships.
The resulting classification largely reflects geographic propinquity rather than linguistic origins. This is evidence for the primary importance ofshort-range interdemic gene flow in shaping the modern gene pools of Europe.



Fallmerayer have no right ..
modern Greeks are mix of MACEDONIANS (like people from R. of Macedonia) and sub-saharans and asians,and Turks,Vlachs,Albanians...

my dear..
dont be ashamed..
4.000 y. of Sub-Saharan (African) culture in EU..
it`s really big deal..
yassou file..